Document: FSC-0079
Version:  002
Date:     21-Jul-95

                                      RTF Mail

                                   A Proposal for
                                 Message Formatting
                            In the Type 2 Message Packet

                                         by
                                     Kaleb Axon
                                 1:280/77.0@fidonet
                                    July 21, 1995


       Status of this document:

            This FSC suggests a proposed standard for the FidoNet(r)
            community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
            improvements.  Distribution of this document is subject to the
            restrictions listed in the copyright paragraph below.

            Fido and FidoNet are registered trademarks of Tom Jennings and
            Fido Software.

            Copyright 1994-1995 by Kaleb Axon.  All rights reserved.
            A limited license is hereby granted to the FidoNet and its
            participants to redistribute this document, provided that it is
            distributed only without modification, and only at no charge.
            Under no circumstances may this document be reproduced or
            distributed as part of or packaged with any product or other
            sales transaction for which any fee is charged.  Any and all
            other reproduction or excerpting requires the explicit written
            consent of the author.

       Table of Contents

       1. Rationale ........................................................3
       2. Prerequisites for a Standard .....................................3
       3. Final Choice: the Rich Text Format ...............................3
       4. RTF Mail Implementation ..........................................4
            4.1. Message Character Set .....................................4
            4.2. Message Header Information ................................4
            4.3. Character Set .............................................4
            4.4. Kludge Lines ..............................................4
                    4.4.1. The RTF Kludge Line..............................5
            4.5. The RTF Text ..............................................5
            4.6. Tear Line and Origin Line .................................5
       5. Guidelines for Use ...............................................5
            5.1. Direct RTF Mail ...........................................5
                    5.1.1. RTF Capability On the Receiving System...........5

                                                  RTF Mail Proposal    page 2


                    5.1.2. Pictures and Embedded Objects in Direct RTF Mail.5
            5.2. Routed RTF Mail ...........................................6
                    5.2.1. RTF Capability On the Receiving System...........6
                    5.2.2. Pictures and Embedded Objects in Routed RTF Mail.6
            5.3. RTF Echos .................................................6
                    5.3.1. RTF Echo Names...................................6
                    5.3.2. RTF/ASCII Gateways...............................6
                    5.3.3. Backbone Qualification for Dual-Format Echos.....7
                    5.3.4. Dual-Format Echo Names...........................7
       6. Sample RTF Messages ..............................................8
            6.1. Sample RTF Netmail Message ................................8
            6.2. Sample RTF Echomail Message ...............................8
       7. Practical Limitations and Other Deviations from the RTF Standard .8
            7.1. Line Length ...............................................8
            7.2. Style Sheets and Color Tables .............................9
            7.3. Headers and Footers .......................................9
            7.4. Sections ..................................................9
            7.5. Multiple-Column Text ......................................9
            7.6. Keep With Next and Keep Together ..........................9
            7.7. Absolute Positioned Objects and Frames ....................9
            7.8. Special Characters ........................................9
            7.9. Bookmarks ................................................10
            7.10. Footnotes ...............................................10
            7.11. Fields ..................................................10
            7.12. Index and Table of Contents Entries .....................10
            7.13. Bi-directional Language Support .........................10
            7.14. 16-bit Characters and other Oriental Language Support ...10
       8. Character Set Conversion Tables .................................11
            8.1. ANSI to IBM PC Codepage 437 and Macintosh ................11
            8.2. IBM PC Codepage 437 to ANSI ..............................15
            8.3. IBM PC Codepage 437 to ANSI ..............................17
            8.4. Macintosh to ANSI ........................................18

                                                  RTF Mail Proposal    page 3



       1.   Rationale

            With the increasing popularity of graphical operating systems
            such as Windows, OS/2, and the Macintosh, many users have begun
            to demand text formatting capabilities.  This feature is beyond
            the capabilities of current FidoNet standards.

       2.   Prerequisites for a Standard

            It was my determination that a standard for message formatting
            must meet, at a minimum, the following prerequisites:

            1.   The format used, if not an industry-wide standard, must at
                 least have enough industry acceptance and support to warrant
                 being chosen over other options.
                 
            2.   It must be either
                 a)   easy to program, or
                 b)   be supported by readily available off-the-shelf
                      development products.
                 
            3.   It must be backward-compatible with existing distribution
                 channels, such as the FidoNet backbones.  By this I don't
                 mean that all existing software must be capable of reading
                 it; only that if such mail is routed, it will not break the
                 software along the way.
                 
            4.   It must support an international character set for Latin-
                 based alphabets, and support other character sets as well.

       3.   Final Choice: the Rich Text Format

            After some research, I concluded that the most practical format
            to use would be the Rich Text Format.  RTF (as it is abbreviated)
            has the following advantages over other formats:

            1.                RTF is 100% text-based; it contains _no_ binary data
               whatsoever.  Therefore, RTF messages can be stored in Type 2
               packets and routed through existing channels without the risk
               of breaking existing software.  RTF echos can be created as
               well, and RTF echomail will successfully travel through non-
               RTF distribution channels.
               
            2.                RTF supports multiple character sets.  Although all FidoNet
               RTF mail in languages using Latin-based alphabets must use the
               ISO 8859/1 character set (Macintosh and IBM PC conversion
               tables are included in this document), other alphabets are
               supported as well.
               

                                                  RTF Mail Proposal    page 4


            3.                Numerous development tools exist which do the "dirty work" of
               implementing RTF.  It is supported directly by some operating
               systems.
               
            4.                The RTF specification has been made freely available by the
               authors.

            The Rich Text Format specification is published by Microsoft.  It
            is bundled in with this document in plain-text format.  To
            guarantee compliance with Microsoft's distribution requirements,
            the Microsoft Word version of the document is included as well.
            This document includes a sample RTF reader with source code.

            To avoid duplication and the possible errors that could result,
            the Microsoft specification will serve as the standard.

            The FTSC will reserve the right to freeze the RTF version used by
            FidoNet if Microsoft's enhancements get out of hand, but such
            action should only be taken under extreme circumstances, since
            RTF is designed for backward-compatibility.

       4.   RTF Mail Implementation

       4.1.  Message Character Set

            RTF Mail provides full multilingual support, including support
            for bi-directional fonts.

       4.2.  Message Header Information

            From, To, and Subject shall be in the same character set as the
            default font of the message.  However, these fields have no
            formatting of their own; they are raw text.

       4.3.  Character Set

            The "ANSI" character set referred to by the RTF specification is
            the ISO 8859/1 character set.  All RTF mail in languages using a
            Latin-derived alphabet shall use the ISO 8859/1 character set
            (indicated in the RTF standard as \fcharset0).  Conversion tables
            to the IBM PC Codepage 437 and the Macintosh character sets are
            provided at the end of this document.

       4.4.  Kludge Lines

            All appropriate kludge lines shall appear at the top of the
            message, as defined by their FTS and FSC documents.  These come
            _before_ the first opening curly brace of the RTF text, and have
            nothing to do with that formatting.

                                                  RTF Mail Proposal    page 5


          4.4.1. The RTF Kludge Line

            An RTF message shall include among its kludge lines a single
            kludge line containing the letters RTF.  For example:

                 ^aMSGID: 1:280/77.0 1ac94f53
                 ^aTOPT: 4
                 ^aRTF

            Note that there is no colon after RTF.  That's because there is
            no field to follow the colon.

            The RTF kludge is required!  Without it, the destination system
            has no reliable way of identifying this as an RTF message!

       4.5.  The RTF Text

            Following the kludge lines, the RTF text shall appear in the
            format defined by the RTF specification.

       4.6.  Tear Line and Origin Line

            For compatibility reasons, these are provided after the closing
            curly brace of the RTF text.  They are not part of the RTF text
            itself.

       5.   Guidelines for Use

       5.1.  Direct RTF Mail

          5.1.1. RTF Capability On the Receiving System

            It is suggested that the nodelist flag RTF be used to indicate
            that a system is capable of handling RTF Mail.  However, this may
            be politically impractical.  When the RTF flag is not present, it
            is up to the sender of the message to verify that the receiving
            system is capable of handling RTF Mail.

          5.1.2. Pictures and Embedded Objects in Direct RTF Mail

            Pictures and embedded objects are very large.  To avoid problems
            associated with the potentially large size of messages with
            embedded objects, each direct RTF message shall be limited to
            65520 bytes.  This limitation applies only to Type 2 packets.

                                                  RTF Mail Proposal    page 6


       5.2.  Routed RTF Mail

          5.2.1. RTF Capability On the Receiving System

            A routed RTF message will safely pass through non-RTF systems.
            The original sender of the message must still take care to make
            sure the final recipient of the message can handle RTF Mail.

          5.2.2. Pictures and Embedded Objects in Routed RTF Mail

            Pictures and embedded objects are _extremely_ large.  Therefore,
            embedding objects in routed mail, without the prior consent of
            all sysops along the route, is likely to be considered annoying
            behavior.  Specific policy regarding this issue is beyond the
            scope of this document.

       5.3.  RTF Echos

          5.3.1. RTF Echo Names

            The names of _all_ RTF echos shall be prefixed with the four
            characters "RTF.".  For example:

                 RTF.WIN.SYSOP
                 RTF.WINDOWS.PROG
                 RTF.NET_DEV

            This naming convention should be enforced by RTF-capable
            software.

          5.3.2. RTF/ASCII Gateways

            5.3.2.1.  The Gateway Idea

            Authors of RTF-capable software are encouraged to provide
            RTF/ASCII "gateway" capability.  Using this feature, an echo
            moderator may link an RTF and a plain ASCII echo.  In this way,
            an echo can be available in both formats.  Of course, most if not
            all formatting is lost upon translation to plain ASCII.

            Moderators are encouraged to provide their echos in both formats.
            Multiple-format echos are provided at moderators' discretion.

            5.3.2.2.  How RTF/ASCII Gateways Work

            An RTF/ASCII gateway's primary purpose is to strip formatting
            data from RTF messages and convert them to the IBM PC
            codepage 437 character set, so that they can be forwarded into a
            plain ASCII echo.  This effectively allows an echo to be shared
            by RTF and non-RTF systems.

                                                  RTF Mail Proposal    page 7


            An RTF/ASCII gateway accepts messages from one echo, strips the
            seen-by and path lines, and then forwards them into the other
            echo.  The seen-by and path lines must be stripped because these
            would cause the messages to die out on the return trip through
            the backbone.

            RTF messages must be stripped of their formatting data and
            converted to the IBM PC codepage 437 character set, before being
            forwarded into the plain ASCII echo.  The software should provide
            the option of converting to the less-flexible 7-bit ASCII in
            addition to the IBM PC characters, so that the moderator can
            choose what is most appropriate for the particular echo.

            Since RTF systems recognize plain ASCII, no conversion is needed
            when forwarding messages from plain ASCII to an RTF echo.

          5.3.3. Suggested Backbone Requirements for Dual-Format Echos

            If and when RTF Mail comes into common use, each backbone will
            need to form policies regarding its use.  The following is
            suggested as a guideline to follow:

            When an echo is available in both formats, each format must
            separately qualify to be carried on the backbone.  For example,
            the plain ASCII version may meet the minimum backbone
            requirements, while the RTF version may not.  The stripping of
            seen-bys at the gateway aides in determining the separate
            qualification of each one.

          5.3.4. Dual-Format Echo Names

            Echos available in both formats should carry the same name,
            except with or without the prefix.  For example:

                 ENDEAVOR.TEST
                 RTF.ENDEAVOR.TEST
            or
                 NET_DEV
                 RTF.NET_DEV

            Ideally, echos with different formats would never carry the same
            root name, unless they are actually linked.

                                                  RTF Mail Proposal    page 8


       6.   Sample RTF Messages

            This section is intended to help the programmer understand the
            RTF specifications as they apply to FidoNet RTF Mail.  This is
            not intended to fully document the Rich Text format; only to help
            clarify the existing specification.

       6.1.  Sample RTF Netmail Message

                 ^aMSGID: 1:280/77.0 1c4a972f
                 ^aINTL: 3:632/348 1:280/77
                 ^aRTF
                 {\rtf1\ansi\deff0{\fonttbl{\f0\fswiss Arial;}}
                 \f0\fs12
                 This is a sample RTF netmail message.
                 \par\par Use this sample as your guideline when
                  developing software that generates RTF netmail.
                 \par\par That's all, folks!
                 \par\par                {\i Kaleb}
                 \par\par}

       6.2.  Sample RTF Echomail Message

                 AREA:RTF.ENDEAVOR
                 ^aMSGID: 1:280/77.0 1c4a972f
                 ^aRTF
                 {\rtf1\ansi\deff0{\fonttbl{\f0\fswiss Arial;}}
                 \f0\fs12
                 This is a sample RTF echomail message.
                 \par\par Use this sample as your guideline when
                  developing software that generates RTF echomail.
                 \par\par That's all, folks!
                 \par\par                {\i Kaleb}
                 \par\par}
                 --- Endeavor [alpha 1.00.021]
                  * Origin: Kaleb's Basement (1:280/77.0)
                 SEEN-BY: 280/77 1 2 333 666 1/214
                 ^aPATH: 280/77 1

       7.   Practical Limitations and Other Deviations from the RTF Standard

       7.1.  Line Length

            When routing RTF Mail, there is a possibility that some non-RTF
            systems en-route may insert soft CRs into the message.  It's not
            supposed to happen, but it does.

            To prevent this from happening, each line of an RTF message
            should be limited to 65 characters, including the hard CR.  This
            is possible because the RTF standard calls for paragraphs to end
            with the \par control word; hard CRs are ignored.

                                                  RTF Mail Proposal    page 9


       7.2.  Style Sheets and Color Tables

            Some RTF writers create style sheets and color tables for a broad
            range of styles and colors, regardless of how few, if any, of
            those styles or colors are actually used.  This is inappropriate
            for electronic mail, where it would result in needless
            transmission costs.  Only define style sheets and color tables
            that are actually used.

       7.3.  Headers and Footers

            An RTF message may contain a single header and footer.  These
            would be displayed as non-scrolling regions at the top and bottom
            of the window where the message is viewed.  Software not
            supporting this feature should simply show the header at the top
            of the message and the footer at the bottom.

       7.4.  Sections

            Sections are considered an advanced feature.  Although full
            support for sections is not required, an RTF Mail reader must
            always produce all the text of the message.

       7.5.  Multiple-Column Text

            Multiple-column text is considered an advanced feature.  RTF Mail
            readers may simply show such text in a single column.

       7.6.  Keep With Next and Keep Together

            These paragraph formatting properties have no application in the
            context of on-line browsing of electronic mail.  However, they
            could come in handy for printing messages.  Support for this
            feature is entirely optional.

       7.7.  Absolute Positioned Objects and Frames

            Absolute positioning is an advanced feature.  RTF Mail editors
            should not count on these being supported by the reader.

       7.8.  Special Characters

            Special characters are supported when they make sense.  For
            example, a page number does not ordinarily make sense in
            electronic mail, but a non-breaking space does.

            Current date and time should be displayed as the date and time
            the message was _posted_ as opposed to the time it is being read.
            This just makes more sense in electronic mail.  We'll use snail
            mail as an analogy.  When letter is written and printed using a
            word processor, the time of printing is shown, not the time that
            the letter arrives at its destination.

                                                  RTF Mail Proposal   page 10



       7.9.  Bookmarks

            Bookmarks might apply in really long messages, but they are
            likely to not be supported by some software.

       7.10. Footnotes

            Footnotes are an optional feature.  If supported, how they are
            displayed is determined by the software author.  Suggested
            techniques include enclosing the footnote reference character in
            a small button that can be clicked on to view the footnote, or
            showing the footnotes in a separate window (or a splitter
            window).

       7.11. Fields

            Support for various fields should not be assumed, and the
            \fldrslt control word must _always_ be included, even if it looks
            something like this:

                 {\field{\*\fldinst whatever}{\fldrslt <field not
                 supported>}}}

            This requirement is so that the user will always see _something_,
            even if that "something" tells them they're "out of luck."

       7.12. Index and Table of Contents Entries

            Index and Table of Contents entries have no application in the
            context of electronic mail.

       7.13. Bi-directional Language Support

            Support for bi-directional language features is encouraged, but
            is of course only applicable to software capable of recognizing
            the alphabet of a right-to-left language.

       7.14. 16-bit Characters and other Oriental Language Support

            The 16-bit character sets and other extended features used for
            some Far Eastern languages are beyond the capabilities of the
            Type 2 message packet.

                                                  RTF Mail Proposal   page 11


       8.   Character Set Conversion Tables

            RTF Mail uses the 8-bit ANSI character set for all languages that
            use a Latin-based alphabet.  This section provides conversion
            tables to and from the IBM PC (codepage 437) and Macintosh
            character sets.  The Windows character set is similar to ANSI.

       8.1.  ANSI to IBM PC Codepage 437 and Macintosh

                    ANSI    Mac IBM PC  Character
                  ------  ----- ------  ------------------------------------
                   00-1F  00-1F  00-1F  non-displayable control characters
                   20-7E  20-7E  20-7E  displayable ASCII characters
                      7F     7F     7F  non-displayable control character
                   80-9F     20     20  not used
                      A0     CA     FF  no-break space
                      A1     C1     AD  inverted exclamation point
                      A2     A2     9B  copyright sign
                      A3     A3     9C  pound sign
                      A4     DB     0F  currency sign
                      A5     B4     9D  yen sign
                      A6     7C     7C  |
                      A7     A4     15  section sign
                      A8     AC    n/a  diaeresis
                      A9     A9     43  copyright sign
                      AA     BB     A6  feminine ordinal indicator
                      AB     C7     AE  left pointing double angle quotation
                                        mark
                      AC     C2     AA  not sign
                      AD     2D     2D  -
                      AE     A8     52  registered trademark sign
                      AF     F8    n/a  macron
                      B0     A1     F8  degree sign
                      B1     B1     F1  plus-minus sign
                      B2    n/a     FD  superscripted 2
                      B3    n/a    n/a  superscripted 3
                      B4     AB    n/a  acute accent
                      B5     B5     E6  micro sign
                      B6     A6     14  paragraph sign
                      B7    n/a     FA  middle dot
                      B8     FC    n/a  cedilla
                      B9    n/a    n/a  superscripted 1
                      BA     BC     A7  masculine ordinal indicator
                      BB     C8     AF  right pointing double angle quotation
                                        mark
                      BC    n/a     AC  one fourth
                      BD    n/a     AB  one half
                      BE    n/a    n/a  one third
                      BF     C0     A8  inverted question mark

                                                  RTF Mail Proposal   page 12


            ANSI to IBM PC Codepage 437 and Macintosh (continued)

                    ANSI    Mac IBM PC  Character
                  ------  ----- ------  ------------------------------------
                      C0     CB     41  latin capital letter A with grave
                                        accent
                      C1     E7     41  latin capital letter A with acute
                                        accent
                      C2     E5     41  latin capital letter A with
                                        circumflex accent
                      C3     CC     41  latin capital letter A with tilde
                      C4     80     8E  latin capital letter A with diaeresis
                      C5     81     8F  latin capital letter A with ring
                                        above
                      C6     AE     92  latin capital letter A with E
                      C7     82     80  latin capital letter C with cedilla
                      C8     E9     45  latin capital letter E with grave
                                        accent
                      C9     83     90  latin capital letter E with acute
                                        accent
                      CA     E6     45  latin capital letter E with
                                        circumflex accent
                      CB     E8     45  latin capital letter E with diaeresis
                      CC     ED     49  latin capital letter I with grave
                                        accent
                      CD     EA     49  latin capital letter I with acute
                                        accent
                      CE     EB     49  latin capital letter I with
                                        circumflex accent
                      CF     EC     49  latin capital letter I with diaeresis
                      D0     44     44  latin capital letter D, dashed out
                      D1     84     A5  latin capital letter N with tilde
                      D2     F1     4F  latin capital letter O with grave
                                        accent
                      D3     EE     4F  latin capital letter O with acute
                                        accent
                      D4     EF     4F  latin capital letter O with
                                        circumflex accent
                      D5     CD     4F  latin capital letter O with tilde
                      D6     85     99  latin capital letter O with diaeresis
                      D7     78     78  multiplication sign

                                                  RTF Mail Proposal   page 13


            ANSI to IBM PC Codepage 437 and Macintosh (continued)

                    ANSI    Mac IBM PC  Character
                  ------  ----- ------  ------------------------------------
                      D8     AF     ED  latin capital letter O with oblique
                                        stroke
                      D9     F4     55  latin capital letter U with grave
                                        accent
                      DA     F2     55  latin capital letter U with acute
                                        accent
                      DB     F3     55  latin capital letter U with
                                        circumflex accent
                      DC     86     9A  latin capital letter U with diaeresis
                      DD     59     59  latin capital letter Y with acute
                                        accent
                      DE    n/a    n/a
                      DF     A7     E1  latin small leter sharp s,
                                        greek capital letter beta
                      E0     88     85  latin small letter a with grave
                                        accent
                      E1     87     A0  latin small letter a with acute
                                        accent
                      E2     89     83  latin small leter a with circumflex
                                        accent
                      E3     8B     61  latin small letter a with tilde
                      E4     8A     84  latin small letter a with diaeresis
                      E5     8C     86  latin small letter a with ring above
                      E6     BE     91  latin small letter a with e
                      E7     8D     87  latin small letter c with cedilla
                      E8     8F     8A  latin small letter e with grave
                                        accent
                      E9     8E     82  latin small letter e with acute
                                        accent
                      EA     90     88  latin small letter e with circumflex
                                        accent
                      EB     91     89  latin small letter e with diaeresis
                      EC     93     8D  latin small letter i with grave
                                        accent
                      ED     92     A1  latin small letter i with acute
                                        accent
                      EE     94     8C  latin small letter i with circumflex
                                        accent
                      EF     95     8B  latin small letter i with diaeresis
                      F0     6F     6F

                                                  RTF Mail Proposal   page 14


            ANSI to IBM PC Codepage 437 and Macintosh (continued)

                    ANSI    Mac IBM PC  Character
                  ------  ----- ------  ------------------------------------
                      F1     96     A4  latin small letter n with tilde
                      F2     98     95  latin small letter o with grave
                                        accent
                      F3     97     A2  latin small letter o with acute
                                        accent
                      F4     99     93  latin small letter o with circumflex
                                        accent
                      F5     9B     6F  latin small letter o with tilde
                      F6     9A     94  latin small letter o with diaeresis
                      F7     D6     F6  division sign
                      F8     BF     ED  latin small letter o with oblique
                                        stroke
                      F9     9D     97  latin small letter u with grave
                                        accent
                      FA     9C     A3  latin small letter u with acute
                                        accent
                      FB     9E     96  latin small letter u with circumflex
                                        accent
                      FC     9F     81  latin small letter u with diaeresis
                      FD     79     79  latin small letter y with acute
                                        accent
                      FE    n/a    n/a
                      FF     D8     98  latin small letter y with diaeresis

                                                  RTF Mail Proposal   page 15


       8.2.  IBM PC Codepage 437 to ANSI

                  IBM PC   ANSI  Character
                  ------ ------  ------------------------------------
                   00-0E  00-0E  non-displayable control characters
                      0F     A4  currency sign
                   10-13  10-13  non-displayable control characters
                      14     B6  paragraph sign
                      15     A7  section sign
                   16-1D  16-1D  non-displayable control characters
                      1E    n/a  increment
                      1F     1F  non-displayable control character
                   20-7E  20-7E  displayable ASCII characters
                      7F     7F  non-displayable control character
                      80     C7  latin capital letter C with cedilla
                      81     FC  latin small letter u with diaeresis
                      82     E9  latin small letter e with acute accent
                      83     E2  latin small letter a with circumflex accent
                      84     E4  latin small letter a with diaeresis
                      85     E0  latin small letter a with grave accent
                      86     E5  latin small letter a with ring above
                      87     E7  latin small letter c with cedilla
                      88     EA  latin small letter e with circumflex accent
                      89     EB  latin small letter e with diaeresis
                      8A     E8  latin small letter e with grave accent
                      8B     EF  latin small letter i with diaeresis
                      8C     EE  latin small letter i with circumflex accent
                      8D     EC  latin small letter i with grave accent
                      8E     C4  latin capital letter A with diaeresis
                      8F     C5  latin capital letter A with ring above
                      90     C9  latin capital letter E with acute accent
                      91     E6  latin small letter a with e
                      92     C6  latin capital letter A with E
                      93     F4  latin small letter o with circumflex accent
                      94     F6  latin small letter o with diaeresis
                      95     F2  latin small letter o with grave accent
                      96     FB  latin small letter u with circumflex accent
                      97     F9  latin small letter u with grave accent
                      98     FF  latin small letter y with diaeresis
                      99     D6  latin capital letter O with diaeresis
                      9A     DC  latin capital letter U with diaeresis
                      9B     A2  copyright sign
                      9C     A3  pound sign
                      9D     A5  yen sign
                      9E    n/a  latin capital letter P with small t
                      9F    n/a  latin small letter script f,
                                 florin sign

                                                  RTF Mail Proposal   page 16


            IBM PC Codepage 437 to ANSI (continued)

                  IBM PC   ANSI  Character
                  ------ ------  ------------------------------------
                      A0     E1  latin small letter a with acute accent
                      A1     ED  latin small letter i with acute accent
                      A2     F3  latin small letter o with acute accent
                      A3     FA  latin small letter u with acute accent
                      A4     F1  latin small letter n with tilde
                      A5     D1  latin capital letter N with tilde
                      A6     AA  feminine ordinal indicator
                      A7     BA  masculine ordinal indicator
                      A8     BF  inverted question mark
                      A9    n/a  backwards not sign
                      AA     AC  not sign
                      AB     BD  one half
                      AC     BC  one fourth
                      AD     A1  inverted exclamation point
                      AE     AB  left pointing double angle quotation mark
                      AF     BB  right pointing double angle quotation mark
                   B0-B2    n/a  hatched box-drawing characters
                   B3-DA    n/a  line-drawing characters
                   DB-DF    n/a  solid box-drawing characters
                      E1     DF  latin small leter sharp s,
                                 greek capital letter beta
                      E2    n/a
                      E3    n/a  greek small letter pi
                      E4    n/a  summation
                      E5    n/a
                      E6     B5  micro sign
                      E7    n/a
                      E8    n/a
                      E9     B5
                      EA    n/a  greek capital letter omega
                      EB    n/a
                      EC    n/a  infinity sign
                      ED     D8  latin capital letter O with oblique stroke
                      EE    n/a
                      EF    n/a
                      F0    n/a
                      F1     B1  plus-minus sign
                      F2    n/a  greater than or equal to
                      F3    n/a  less than or equal to
                      F4    n/a
                      F5    n/a
                      F6     F7  division sign
                      F7    n/a  almost equals

                                                  RTF Mail Proposal   page 17


       8.3.  IBM PC Codepage 437 to ANSI

                  IBM PC   ANSI  Character
                  ------ ------  ------------------------------------
                      F8     B0  degree sign
                      F9    n/a
                      FA     2E  middle dot
                      FB    n/a  radical sign
                      FC    n/a  superscripted latin small letter n
                      FD     B2  superscripted 2
                      FE     2A  bullet
                      FF     A0  no-break space

                                                  RTF Mail Proposal   page 18


       8.4.  Macintosh to ANSI

                    Mac   ANSI  Character
                  ----- ------  ------------------------------------
                  00-1F  00-1F  non-displayable control characters
                  20-7E  20-7E  displayable ASCII characters
                     7F     7F  non-displayable control character
                     80     C4  latin capital letter A with diaeresis
                     81     C5  latin capital letter A with ring above
                     82     C7  latin capital letter C with cedilla
                     83     C9  latin capital letter E with acute accent
                     84     D1  latin capital letter N with tilde
                     85     D6  latin capital letter O with diaeresis
                     86     DC  latin capital letter U with diaeresis
                     87     E1  latin small letter a with acute accent
                     88     E0  latin small letter a with grave accent
                     89     E2  latin small letter a with circumflex accent
                     8A     E4  latin small letter a with diaeresis
                     8B     E3  latin small letter a with tilde
                     8C     E5  latin small letter a with ring above
                     8D     E7  latin small letter c with cedilla
                     8E     E9  latin small letter e with acute accent
                     8F     E8  latin small letter e with grave accent
                     90     EA  latin small letter e with circumflex accent
                     91     EB  latin small letter e with diaeresis
                     92     ED  latin small letter i with acute accent
                     93     EC  latin small letter i with grave accent
                     94     EE  latin small letter i with circumflex accent
                     95     EF  latin small letter i with diaeresis
                     96     F1  latin small letter n with tilde
                     97     F3  latin small letter o with acute accent
                     98     F2  latin small letter o with grave accent
                     99     F4  latin small letter o with circumflex accent
                     9A     F6  latin small letter o with diaeresis
                     9B     F5  latin small letter o with tilde
                     9C     FA  latin small letter u with acute accent
                     9D     F9  latin small letter u with grave accent
                     9E     FB  latin small letter u with circumflex accent
                     9F     FC  latin small letter u with diaeresis
                     A0    n/a  dagger
                     A1     B0  degree sign
                     A2     A2  copyright sign
                     A3     A3  pound sign
                     A4     A7  section sign
                     A5     2A  bullet
                     A6     B6  paragraph sign
                     A7     DF  latin small leter sharp s,
                                greek capital letter beta

                                                  RTF Mail Proposal   page 19


            Macintosh to ANSI (continued)

                    Mac   ANSI  Character
                  ----- ------  ------------------------------------
                     A8     AE  registered trademark sign
                     A9     A9  copyright sign
                     AA    n/a  trademark ligature
                     AB     B4  acute accent
                     AC     A8  diaeresis
                     AD    n/a  not equal to
                     AE     C6  latin capital letter A with E
                     AF     D8  latin capital letter O with oblique stroke
                     B0    n/a  infinity sign
                     B1     B1  plus-minus sign
                     B2    n/a  less than or equal to
                     B3    n/a  greater than or equal to
                     B4     A5  yen sign
                     B5     B5  micro sign
                     B6    n/a  partial differential sign
                     B7    n/a  summation
                     B8    n/a  repeated product
                     B9    n/a  greek small letter pi
                     BA    n/a  integral sign
                     BB     AA  feminine ordinal indicator
                     BC     BA  masculine ordinal indicator
                     BD    n/a  greek capital letter omega
                     BE     E6  latin small letter a with e
                     BF     F8  latin small letter o with oblique stroke
                     C0     BF  inverted question mark
                     C1     A1  inverted exclamation point
                     C2     AC  not sign
                     C3    n/a  radical sign
                     C4    n/a  latin small letter script f,
                                florin sign
                     C5    n/a  almost equals
                     C6    n/a  increment
                     C7     AB  left pointing double angle quotation mark
                     C8     BB  right pointing double angle quotation mark
                     C9    n/a  horizontal ellipsis
                     CA     A0  no-break space
                     CB     C0  latin capital letter A with grave accent
                     CC     C3  latin capital letter A with tilde
                     CD     D5  latin capital letter O with tilde
                     CE    n/a  latin capital ligature O with E
                     CF    n/a  latin small ligature o with e

                                                  RTF Mail Proposal   page 20


            Macintosh to ANSI (continued)

                    Mac   ANSI  Character
                  ----- ------  ------------------------------------
                     D0     2D  en-dash
                     D1     2D  em-dash
                     D2     22  left double quotation mark
                     D3     22  right double quotation mark
                     D4     27  left single quotation mark
                     D5     27  right single quotation mark
                     D6     F7  division sign
                     D7    n/a  lozenge
                     D8     FF  latin small letter y with diaeresis
                     D9     59  latin capital letter y with diaeresis
                     DA     2F  division
                     DB     A4  currency sign
                     DC     3C  single left pointing angle quotation mark
                     DD     3E  single right pointing angle quotation mark
                     DE    n/a  fi ligature small
                     DF    n/a  fl ligature small
                     E0    n/a  double dagger
                     E1     2E  middle dot
                     E2     27  single low quotation mark
                     E3     22  double low quotation mark
                     E4    n/a  permille sign
                     E5     C2  latin capital letter A with circumflex accent
                     E6     CA  latin capital letter E with circumflex accent
                     E7     C1  latin capital letter A with acute accent
                     E8     CB  latin capital letter E with diaeresis
                     E9     C8  latin capital letter E with grave accent
                     EA     CD  latin capital letter I with acute accent
                     EB     CE  latin capital letter I with circumflex accent
                     EC     CF  latin capital letter I with diaeresis
                     ED     CC  latin capital letter I with grave accent
                     EE     D3  latin capital letter O with acute accent
                     EF     D4  latin capital letter O with circumflex accent
                     F0    n/a  Apple logo
                     F1     D2  latin capital letter O with grave accent
                     F2     DA  latin capital letter U with acute accent
                     F3     DB  latin capital letter U with circumflex accent
                     F4     D9  latin capital letter U with grave accent
                     F5    n/a  latin small letter i without dot above
                     F6     5E  circumflex accent
                     F7    n/a  nonspacing tilde

                                                  RTF Mail Proposal   page 21




            Macintosh to ANSI (continued)

                    Mac   ANSI  Character
                  ----- ------  ------------------------------------
                     F8     AF  macron
                     F9    n/a  breve
                     FA    n/a  dot above
                     FB    n/a  ring above
                     FC     B8  cedilla
                     FD    n/a  double acute accent
                     FE    n/a  ogonek
                     FF    n/a  caron